Vilniaus Universitetas

Taikomoji kalbotyra

Tarptautinės taikomosios kalbotyros konferencijos „Kalbos ir žmonės: dialogai ir kontaktai“ pranešimų tezės

Piet Van de Craen (Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium) 


HOW THE BRAIN LIKES LANGUAGES AND HOW TO SATISFY IT 

In this paper the relationship between multilingual teaching and learning (in the sense of content and language integrated learning) and the brain is explored and illustrated. In the first part it is made clear why learning and the brain are important features for modern language learning. In the second part results of CLIL are discussed referring to language proficiency, cognitive development and the brain with respect to primary and secondary school education. In the third part some language pedagogical aspects of these results will be highlighted. Finally, these results will be put against the background of modern European (language) education.

Elana Shohamy (Tel Aviv University, Israel) 

LINGUISTIC LANDSCAPE: LANGUAGES, POLICY AND PEOPLE NEGOTIATING IN THE PUBLIC SPACE 

The study of Linguistic landscape (LL), referring to languages displayed and represented in the public space, has gained major attention in the past few years as a vibrant and emerging domain of research. It examines the complexities involved and the messages delivered in framing language as a symbolic construction of the public space. At the same time, current views of Language Policy (LP) are understood as acts of continuous and dynamic dialoging and negotiations on various levels (e.g., top-down; bottom-up). It is the connection between these two domains, LL and LP, that this paper will address with the focus on the role that people as agents, play in this interaction. I will show how LL serves as a major mechanism within the process of negotiating LPs and the role that the public space plays within that process. While policy makers use LL to create de facto policies by promoting certain languages and eliminating others, these acts evoke various types of reactions on the part of people regarding the ownership and ideologies delivered in the public space. These reactions range from compliance, tensions, resistance and constructive negotiations. I will focus on a number of research studies where such contestation of the public space have taken place by using different types of LL items, not only signs but also variety of multi-modal items. Each of these studies demonstrates the role that LL can have as a mediation tool between policies and people. LL can thus be used as an integral part of updated views of LP in continuous and dynamic dialoging and negotiations on various levels. Clearly, attention to language in the ecology is not only vital for understanding overt and covert ideologies but can also serve as an activist tool for creating an ecology which is more inclusive and representative of diverse communities. 



Jon White (British Council, United Kingdom) 

THE FUTURE OF EDUCATION; BRIDGING THE DIGITAL DIVIDE 

We live in a time of unprecedented change in learning. Both the advent of technology in education and a new type of educational consumer in the classroom (pupils and students) means that there are new and exciting ways of delivering language education to this new Y Generation. But there are many challenges that face both governments and teachers alike as well as education providers before the digital divide can be addressed. 
A survey of pupils, the technology industry in education and actual projects which use new technology and new looser pedagogical models is demonstrating that less control is more productive for achievement in the language classroom, and that teachers and education departments of governments for the first time truly have the ability to provide language education tailored to the individual needs of pupils and students. 
Project-based learning which has been a focus of education for many years can now be realised simply and easily through the introduction into the classroom environment of free-to-use digital assets and asset management, and a minimal investment in hardware can create a maximum effect on learning for life. The British Council are pioneers in this area. 
Issues such as a fundamental change in the way that teachers are trained, drawing upon well-defined and available e-learning/m-learning models will make the process a simple transition. Over the next 3-5 years, educators who make the fundamental changes that are needed in both the introduction of technology into classrooms as well as the way in which teachers are trained, will be the ones who are seen as the leading educators of the future. 



Daiva Aliūkaitė, Vilniaus universitetas, Kauno humanitarinis fakultetas 

TARMINIŲ KODŲ SUPRANTAMUMO PROBLEMA IR GIMTAKALBIS POLIGLOTAS 

Gladis Massini-Cagliari, mokslininkė, tyrusi kalbinę situaciją Brazilijoje – analizavusi portugalų kalbos ir 200 kitų gyvuojančių kalbelių (tarp kurių 170 vietinių kalbelių-dialektų) santykius, teigia, kad kiekvienas gimtakalbis, išmokęs savo kalbą, išmoksta skirti ir kalbos variantus, kiekvienas kalbėtojas būtinai yra gimtosios kalbos „poliglotas“ (Massini-Cagliari G., 2004, Language Policy in Brazil: Monolingualism and Linguistic Prejudice. – Language Policy, 3, 16). Toks komunikacinių kompetencijų nusakymas yra kiek preskriptyvus, leidžiantis manyti, kad bet kuris bet kurios kalbos bendruomenės narys yra potencialus, jei ne aktyviai kalbinei veiklai bet kuriuo kalbos dialektu, tai bent jau pasyviai veiklai, t. y. nepatiria komunikacinių trikdžių girdėdamas skirtingus kalbos dialektus. 
Perceptyviosios dialektologijos tyrimų tradicija leidžia teigti, kad, viena vertus, eilinių bet kurios kalbos bendruomenės narių variantų supratimo ir vertinimo polinkiai tik iš dalies susiję su objektyviomis žiniomis, kita vertus, jų kompetencijos suprasti dialektus yra gana ribotos. Taigi šiame pranešime, remiantis perceptyviojo tyrimo duomenimis, per kurį tiriamieji atliko tarminių tekstų-stimulų atpažinimo ir vertinimo užduotis, bei teorinėmis perceptyviosios dialektologijos, liaudies lingvistikos nuostatomis, tikslinama „gimtakalbio poligloto“ apibrėžtis.


Ingrida Balčiūnienė, Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas 

PRIEŠMOKYKLINIO AMŽIAUS VAIKŲ NARATYVO MIKRO- IR MAKROSTRUKTŪROS YPATYBĖS 

Kalbinis vaikų pasirengimas mokyklai – vienas iš didžiausių iššūkių, su kuriuo susiduria ir vaikų tėvai, ir pedagogai – pradinių klasių mokytojai bei priešmokyklinio ugdymo grupių auklėtojai. Tam, kad atėjęs į mokyklą vaikas gebėtų sparčiai ir sklandžiai lavinti rašytinę kalbą, dar būdamas priešmokyklinio amžiaus, jis turi įgyti pakankamai kalbinių gebėjimų: įsisavinti tam tikros apimties žodyną, išlavinti foneminę klausą ir tartį, susipažinti su grožinės literatūros kalba. Deja, pastaruoju metu vis labiau ryškėja ikimokyklinio amžiaus vaikų kalbos raidos nesklandumai: ribotas žodynas, foneminės klausos ir tarties sutrikimai, ypač dažnai yra pažeista rišliosios kalbos raida. Suprantama, kad tokiems vaikams mokykloje dažniau kyla sunkumų suprasti ir tinkamai atlikti mokytojo užduotis, laikytis bendro klasės mokymosi tempo, o dėl šių nesklandumų gali sumažėti ir paties mokymosi motyvacija. Atsižvelgiant į šią pastaruoju metu vis labiau ryškėjančią problemą, Vytauto Didžiojo universitete 2009 m. buvo pradėtas vykdyti trejų metų trukmės mokslinis projektas „Lietuvių vaikų kalba: įtakos ir tendencijos“ (finansuojamas LMT), kurio vienas iš uždavinių – moksliniais metodais nustatyti priešmokyklinio amžiaus lietuvių vaikų kalbos ypatybes. Šiame pranešime pristatomas projekto metu atliekamas tyrimas, kuriuo analizuojami priešmokyklinio amžiaus vaikų rišliosios monologinės kalbos (naratyvo) gebėjimai. Naratyvas šiam tyrimui pasirinktas kaip vienas iš informatyviausių būdų nustatyti ne tik pasakojimo, bet bendrąsias vaiko kalbos ypatybes (žodingumą, pasakymo ilgį ir kt.), logiką, pažintinius gebėjimus. Atliekant tyrimą, buvo pasitelktas pasakojimo pagal paveikslėlių seką metodas: tiriamųjų vaikų paprašyta pasekti pasaką pagal šešių siužetinių paveikslėlių seką „Fox Story“ (Gülzow, Gagarina 2006). Tyrime dalyvavo 24 priešmokyklinio ugdymo grupes lankantys 5–6 metų vaikai (imtis subalansuota socialinių ypatybių požiūriu), kiekvienas iš jų užduotį atliko individualiai, specialiai tyrimui skirtoje patalpoje. Vaikų pasakojimai buvo įrašyti diktofonu, transkribuoti ir morfologiškai koduoti CHILDES (Child Language Data Exchange System) programa naratyvo mikro- ir makrostruktūros automatinei analizei. Atliekant surinktų duomenų analizę, buvo nustatyta tiriamųjų vaikų naratyvo: a) mikrostruktūros ypatybės (naratyvo sintaksės ypatybės, leksinės semantinės grupės, žodingumas, pasakymo ilgis) ir b) makrostruktūros ypatybės (naratyvo struktūra, pagrindinės minties atskleidimas, pateikiamos informacijos kiekis, teksto rišlumas). Šie rezultatai leidžia formuluoti išvadas apie priešmokyklinio amžiaus lietuvių vaikų rišliosios kalbos gebėjimus. 



Birutė Bersėnienė, Vilnius Pedagogical University 

LEARNER AUTONOMY AS A SOCIOCULTURAL ISSUE 

Learner autonomy is a firmly-established educational notion within the European context, and the content of the notion mainly refers to “the learner’s capacity to make choices and decisions in language teaching and learning contexts” (Phil Benson, 2008). However, within the local Lithuanian context, the notion of learner autonomy still tends to be commonly replaced by the terms self-directed or independent study, and this fact can be accounted for by a certain socially and culturally pre-conditioned background of the issue. The presentation will give a brief historical survey of the treatment of learner autonomy outside Lithuania and then attempt at providing possible future directions towards enhancing the practices of developing learner autonomy in foreign language education in this country. The relevant sociocultural aspects will be discussed in greater detail with the focus on three major points: the need of raising learner awareness, changing attitudes, and transferring teacher and learner roles. Student written journal entries will serve as illustration of how reflective learning can provide transforming potential for better perception of self and peers in pre-service teacher education. Still more specific aspects of learner autonomy in foreign language education will be discussed in view of learner competence development – both general competences and communicative language competence (in accordance with the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages, CUP, 2002). 



Sintija Blumberga, Ventspils University College 

TRANSLATION THEORY AND PRACTICE: SITUATION IN LATVIA AFTER WORLD WAR II 

The role of translation in Latvia grows with every year. The number of translations is increasing, companies providing translation services are being established and several higher educational establishments now offer educational programmes for translators and interpreters. In order to ensure high quality of studies and prepare specialists of the highest qualification there is a need not only for experienced faculty, dictionaries, specially equipped lecture-rooms and specific programmes but also for a scientific basis. Translation studies are a comparatively new area in the Latvian educational system and therefore there are gaps in the content of some courses that cannot be eliminated by monographs, textbooks and research published in other countries. One such gap is the history of translation theory and practice in Latvia; this is an area that has not been addressed thoroughly yet. After the Second World War Latvia became a part of the USSR. All important developments in science and culture, as well as literary activities, took place in the major centres of the Soviet Union, mainly Moscow and Leningrad. Latvia was behind the iron curtain and was almost completely isolated from foreign (Western) information channels. Official, academic and cultural information was disseminated from the key centres of the USSR and mainly in Russian. However, translation industry as well as translation criticism were becoming more and more significant. 
After Latvia regained its independence in 1991, major changes took place. Translation specialists got access to information on translation theory and practice in the West and began to integrate this expertise and experience into translation studies. Even though more and more research papers are published in Latvian in the recent years, there are still some problems concerning translation studies terminology and information on translation theory and practice in Latvia in the past. The latter can be solved by a scrupulous study of all manifestations related to translations, translation theory and criteria of translation quality. In other words, Latvians should write their part in the European history of translation studies.The Latvian language has always been influenced by some dominant contact language. In the Soviet times, the major contact language was Russian, the influence of which on Latvian could not be denied and partly was reflected also in translations. After regaining independence, the information flow in different languages increased, wherewith the amount of translations grew and English became the major contact language. Very quickly Latvian began to turn into a “translation language”. The question arises – how our heritage of translation theory and practice can help in the present situation. The paper examines translation problems after WW2 and, especially, suggestions to solve them, as well as their possible application at present. 



Nida Burneikaitė, Vilnius University 

WRITER-READER INTERACTION IN MA THESES IN ENGLISH L1 AND L2 

Recent developments in text linguistics and discourse analysis have suggested that written texts, like spoken texts, are dialogic and interactive. Written texts, including academic writing, are seen as processes of communication between the writer and the reader. Academic writers employ various rhetorical strategies to present themselves and engage their readers in the ongoing discourse, such as personal pronouns (I hypothesise that…, My aim in this paper…, We could draw a conclusion…), imperatives (Consider the following…), It-type directives (It should be noted...), questions (What is the relationship…?) and the like. The use of interactive strategies in academic writing depends on a number of factors: the purpose of communication and the genre of the text, the discipline and the discourse community in which academic activity takes place, the writer’s status and the power relations between the participants of communication as well as the language and culture in which the text is produced. This paper explores writer-reader interaction in a particular context – MA thesis writing situation, where the purpose of writing is largely the same as in any other research genre (to present the newly created knowledge and persuade the reader to accept it), but where the status of the writer and the role relationship between the writer and the reader is quite specific: the student writer is a novice-member of the academic community who has to show himself/herself as an independent researcher within the context of the Master’s degree programme, and the immediate target reader is an expert-member of the academic discourse community who reviews and evaluates the student’s text. How do MA student writers position themselves in such a situation? To what extent do they make their presence visible in the text? How do they engage the reader in the discourse process? The paper tries to answer these questions by looking at the use of metadiscourse strategies in Linguistics MA theses written in English as the mother tongue (L1) and English as a foreign language (L2). More specifically, it focuses on participant-oriented metadiscourse which includes references to the writer, references to the reader and inclusive references. 40 L1 theses from 4 British universities and 40 L2 theses from 4 Lithuanian universities (a total of over a million words) have been studied to establish the frequencies and distribution of the various types of participant-oriented markers in the theses. The study describes the interactional patterns characteristic of the MA thesis genre in Linguistics and compares writer-reader interaction in English L1 and L2 texts. The quantitative and qualitative differences in L1 and L2 texts are discussed in terms of culture-induced and instruction-induced factors. Individual writer style and institutional variability are briefly touched upon. Implications for teaching and further research are drawn. 




Jurga Cibulskienė, Vilnius Pedagogical University 

EXPLORING METAPHORS OF ECONOMIC CRISIS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ACROSS POLITICAL PARTIES 

The recent years have marked the increasing cognitive linguists’ (Charteris-Black 2005, Chilton 2004, Goatly 2007, Lakoff 1995, Lassan 1995, Mussolf 2004, Semino 2008, etc.) interest in how political ideas are communicated (encoded and decoded) from the perspective of CTM (Conceptual Theory of Metaphor). The present study focuses on metaphorical thinking in Lithuanian political discourse; thus, the socio-cultural aspect of metaphor usage is being highlighted. Furthermore, situational diversity of metaphor usage is reflected in systematic analysis of a political economic phenomenon – the worldwide economic crisis in Lithuania– and the way it is viewed from different perspectives, i.e. how it is metaphorically comprehended by the governing party (the Conservative Party), the opposing parties and the media (journalists). Accordingly, three corpora of relatively small volume have been constructed. While it is advantageous to use large corpora which will probably lead to plausible results, relatively small-scale corpora, according to Semino (2008: 199), are used to discover the differences and similarities at particular points in history and it gives insights of rhetorical and ideological implications. Thus, the present research is confined to political discourse of a certain period of time of a particular country, i.e. economic crisis in Lithuania, and these circumstances determine the volume of the corpora. The hypothesis that metaphorical understanding of economic crisis in Lithuania by the above mentioned socio-political groups differs significantly was confirmed. Since it is an ongoing research, the paper presents just preliminary results of it.The study is carried out by employing CMA approach (Critical Metaphor Analysis), i.e. the three-step metaphor analysis procedure (Identified Explained), suggested by Charteris-Black (2005: 26) while the firstInterpreted step of metaphor identification is performed by applying the MIP (Metaphor Identification Procedure) developed by Pragglejaz group (2010). However, the major emphasis is being placed on the third stage of the analysis where metaphor is conceived as a cognitive mechanism of ideology and which primarily performs the function of persuasion. Accordingly, an attempt is made to investigate what metaphorical scenario different political ‘players’ (the governing party, the opposing parties and journalists) construct while presenting economic crisis in Lithuania and what potential ideological and rhetorical implications of that might be drawn. 



Giedrė Čepaitienė, Šiaulių universitetas 

ATSIPRAŠYMO PRAGMATIKA: TARNYBINĖS SITUACIJOS 

Pranešime analizuojama 1000 respondentų spontaniškai sukurti diskursai kaip reakcija į anketose aprašytas tarnybinio bendravimo situacijas. Visose situacijose adresantas arba neatlieka veiksmo, kurį buvo įsipareigojęs atlikti, arba atlieka jį ne taip. Padaryta žala įvairi: ir materiali, ir nemateriali. Dalyvių santykiai įvairūs: vienose situacijose nelygiaverčiai (skiria pareigos), kitose – lygiaverčiai (pokalbio dalyviai – bendradarbiai). Pranešime gautieji diskursai analizuojami situacijos suvokimo bei kalbinės raiškos aspektais, atsižvelgiant į pokalbio dalyvių lytį ir amžių. 



Ineta Dabašinskienė, Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas 

CHILDREN’S STRATEGIES IN ACQUIRING LITHUANIAN NOUN COMPOUNDS 

Languages differ in the ways they restrict categories. For example, round tables and email messages use adjectives to restrict the domains of tables and messages. The most common way for this purpose in many languages is noun-compounding, as in English bath-room, living-room, etc. Compounds are used for contrasts among sub-categories in many languages, as well in Lithuanian, but compounding is much less common in Lithuanian than in Germanic language (Berman & Clark 1989; Dressler et al. 2009). 
This presentation will show first results of the children’s ability to produce compounds by analyzing longitudinal as well as experimental data. In contrast to other languages (German or English), Lithuanian does not have many compounds, both in types and tokens, although noun compound formation is productive. 
In this study we want to address few questions: when do young Lithuanian children understand and produce compounds? Second, when they do produce compounds, do they produce them more often for contrasting subcategories than for categories shown without contrasting members? Third, to what extent does the overall productivity of compounding in the language affect children’s acquisition of the contrastive function in comprehension and production? 
Our main findings in this study of the acquisition of compounds by Lithuanian children can be summarized as follows. First, we have found a close parallelism between order of emergence and degree of prototypicality: prototypical noun compounds, i.e. endocentric and subordinate and interfixless N+N-compounds emerge first. That interfixed compounds are used less frequently is most probably due to their greater morphosemantic and morphotactic opacity in comparison with the purely concatenative ones. Interfixed compounds emerge later than the prototypical interfixless compounds. The most productive interfixation type (interfix –a) emerges first among the interfixed compounds. 



Ineta Dabašinskienė, Živilė Bikinienė, Rita Blauzdytė, Agnė Kalninytė, Eglė Krivickaitė, Irina Lukašenko, Lidia Niewulis 
Vytautas Magnus University 

DO LITHUANIAN EMPLOYEES NEED MULTILINGUAL EMPLOYERS? 

This presentation will discuss variety of languages and level of language knowledge for the job advertisements in Lithuania. The study is based on the data from on-line and main printed newspapers job ads. We have investigated the range of most popular languages, the level of languages and the way employers describe it, the languages needed according to the position etc. The research has been focused on job advertisements written in English, Lithuanian, and Russian, both from international companies and local ones. 
The main findings suggest that English is the most popular language, followed by Russian. Lithuanian has also important position and employers pay attention to the level of written and spoken Lithuanian. The highest requirements for languages are applicable for manages.


Ina Druviete, University of Latvia 

MULTILINGUALISM IN ELECTRONIC MASS MEDIA: MINORITY LANGUAGE RIGHTS AND/OR INCLUSIVE SOCIETY? 

Language constitutes an essential ingredient in the transmission of national identity elements and their maintenance. Language itself is one of the most effective means by which ideologies, myths and stereotypes – also about different aspects of language competition – are communicated through the mass media. The change of language hierarchy in Latvia because of different market value of languages and deeply rooted practices has not been completed yet. Therefore not only language and media legislation, but also individual language attitudes of media personalities could be considered a serious factor in influencing the society’s system of values as well as linguistic practices. The purpose of the paper is to analyse language use in Latvia’ s mass media both from the point of societal integration against the background of Latvian as the official language as well as from the point of promoting multilingualism and minority language rights. Although the well-considered system of bilingual education in minority schools is present there still is a great discrepancy between declared Latvian language skills and real Latvian language use in the society. The extensive use of Russian in electronic mass media contributes to linguistic self-sufficiency of minority language speakers thus hindering the formation of inclusive society.The conclusions are based on the analysis of empirical research of data collected within the framework of the Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation project “Baltic sociolinguistics: linguistic awareness and orientation in Lithuania and Latvia” (2009), on the results of complex research “Language skills, use and attitudes in Latvia” (2009), and on the discussions about the “Law on Electronic Mass Media” both in Parliament of Latvia and wider society (2009–2010). 



Martin Ehala, University of Tartu 

ATTITUDES TOWARDS RUSSIAN AS AN OFFICIAL LANGUAGE IN LITHUANIA AND ESTONIA 

According to the Lithuanian population census of 2001, about 84% of the country’s population speak Lithuanian as their native language, 8.2% are the native speakers of Russian, 5.8% – of Polish. More than 60% are fluent in Russian, while only about 16% say they can speak English. 
Estonia has two large linguistic communities: Estonians (69%) and Russian speakers (31%). According to a 2003 study about 60% of Estonians have active knowledge of Russian while about 30% of Russian speakers have active knowledge of Estonian. About 25% of Estonians and 12% of Russian speakers have active knowledge of English. 
Both Lithuania and Estonia have one official language: Lithuanian and Estonian respectively. As there are Russian speaking communities in both countries, the issue of whether Russian should have an official status has been occasionally raised. 
The paper compares the attitudes towards the possible official status of Russian in Lithuania and Estonia. The data come from two large scale quantitative studies (sample sizes 800 in Lithuania and 1000 in Estonia) carried out in 2009 and 2008 respectively. The study focuses on the differences in the attitudes of the titular nations of the countries and the representatives of the local Russian communities. The attitude differences between the countries are also addressed as well as the correlations of the attitudes to the socio-demographic background features, such as age, education, knowledge of the state language and residential area. 



Eduardo Faingold, University of Tulsa 

INPUT-BASED PHONOLOGICAL ACQUISITION IN MONOLINGUAL CHILDREN 

This work studies the acquisition of early phonology and lexicon (between 9 months and 3 years of age) by six Hebrew-, four English- and two Spanish-speaking children observed and tape-recorded at least twice a month in their own homes in Israel, US, Argentina and Spain. In all cases, the transcription system was that of the IPA. All imitations were excluded. The cut-off point in vocabulary acquisition was the first 175 words but some children produce only 70 words at a comparable stage of development. The study uncovers two opposite strategies in the application of selected phonological processes: reduction in Hebrew and English (a wide use of syllabic and segmental reduction) vs. maintenance in Spanish (the use of a large number of full words) (Faingold 1990, 1996). All six Hebrew-speaking children show a small number of full words: 8 (15%l), 24 (32%), 24 (24%), 40 (29%), 31 (18%), and 43 (27%). They present a much more extensive use of reduction: 41 (76%), 35 (48%), 52 (51%), 73 (53%), 101 (57%), and 93 (57%). And they show a small number of reduplications and transpositions. Instances of reduplication are: 2 (4%), 14 (19%), 19 (19%), 19 (14%), 40 (23%), and 15 (9%). Instances of transpositions are: 3 (5%), 1 (1%), 6 (6%), 5 (4%), 3 (2%), and 11 (7%). In Hebrew, reduction is focal while the use of full words, reduplication, and transposition is marginal. All four English-speaking children show a small number of full words: 29 (26%), 21 (29%), 15 (22%), and 21 (21%). They all present a much more extensive use of reduction: 37 (35%), 31 (44%), 29 (43%), and 31 (31%). The English-speaking children show a high number of transpositions and a small number of reduplications. Instances of transposition are: 37 (35%), 14 (20%), 17 (25%), and 29 (28%). Instances of reduplication are: 5 (4% ), 5 (7%), 7 (10%), 20 (20%). In English, reduction is focal while the use of full words and reduplication is marginal. Both Spanish-speaking children show a large number of full words: 47 (57%) and 97 (56%), respectively. They present a much less extensive use of reduction with 18 (22%) and 58 (23%) instances. They also demonstrate a small number of reduplications with 10 (12%) and 15 (8%) instances; and transpositions with 7 (9%) and 5 (3%) instances. In Spanish, the use of full words is focal while the use of reduction, reduplication, and transposition is marginal. Thus, the adoption of the reduction and maintenance strategies is input-based since the use of phonological and lexical strategies is deemed to be language-specific in monolingual children (Faingold 1990, 1996). 



Kareen Gervasi, California State University 

PRAGMATICS AND IDEOLOGY: A CASE STUDY OF SPANISH LANGUAGE NEWS REPORTS 

This study uses the Appraisal Theory framework (Martin, J.R. and White, P.R.R: 2005) to examine the use of direct discourse (DD) and indirect discourse (ID) in two Spanish language newspapers: Granma (Gran), the official newspaper of the Cuban Communist Party and El Nuevo Herald (ENH);a Miami-based newspaper. DD and ID are illustrated in (1) and (2) respectively:(1) Mi padre poseía miles de hectáreas de tierra, aseguró Castro. (ENH 05/21/2006) Castro assured: My father owned thousands of hectares of land (2) (Rodríguez) denunció que Cuba ha sufrido pérdidas económicas directas por más de 82 mil millones de dólares debido al bloqueo (Gran) 09/27/05) Rodríguez denounced [the United States in arguing] that Cuba has endured direct economic loss of about 82 billion dollars because of the blockade The reported speech in (1) and (2) illustrate different strategies of attribution (Martin, J.R. and White, P.R.R: 2005). The DD in (1) and the reporting verb aseguró (assured) convey the writer s neutrality and his disclaiming of responsibility regarding the contents of what was originally expressed, whereas the use of ID, paraphrasing the original speech in (2), and the more evaluative verb denunció (denounced) may convey the reporter s support of the viewpoints expressed in the reported speech.The data reveal a significant statistical correlation between reports from (Gram) quoting government officials and the use of ID, whereas in (ENH), there is almost equal use of DD and ID. In contrast, when ordinary citizens without power or influence are quoted in both publications, DD is preferred.The results in this paper support the hypothesis that the use of DD and ID by the journalists is a strategy to disseminate an ideology to their readership. 



Johan Järlehed, University of Gothenburg 

FROM AUTHENTICITY TO ANONYMITY: A DISCUSSION OF POSSIBLE REASONS BEHIND THE PROCESS OF VISUAL ABSTRACTION AND STYLIZATION IN THE LINGUISTIC LANDSCAPING OF THE BASQUE COUNTRY 

One specific kind of multimodal cultural artifacts that circulate in the linguistic landscapes (as a result from social action) – and contribute to the linguistic landscaping (as a dynamic social practice) – of the Autonomous Community the Basque Country in Spain, consist of the posters and stickers used to promote regional (from a centralist point of view) or national (from a separatist point of view) language and identity. These cultural artifacts are produced by a now heterogeneous group of social actors, ranging from political parties to local schools and language associations. During the last 20–30 years, a change has taken place in the visual representation of what earlier was seen as cultural symbols related to these regional languages and identities. Today, these symbols have taken the form – and function? – of logotypes and trademarks (Järlehed 2008). The aim of this paper is to examine this change in visual representation in the linguistic landscape (LL) and to discuss how it relates to the ongoing negotiation and transformation of the meaning and extension of the notion of the nation in the periphery of Spain.Following Shohamy’s and Waksman’s (2009) broad definition of the LL as “an ecological arena” and their claim that the study of the LL needs to take into account the multiple modalities in play in the semiosis, I will pay special attention to the meaning provided by two of the visual aspects of language: typography and color. In the Basque case, both have been used in order to construct, display and mark Basque national and cultural identity: the so called “Basque typography” and the “Basque” colors, that is, the green, red and white of the Basque flag. In the artifacts used to promote the Basque language and identity one can observe a clear decline of both during the last three decades, as well as an ongoing abstraction and stylization in their visual representation.This transformation in graphic and visual representation is parallel to the process of linguistic and political normalization and standardization that this region undergoes during the same period. It could therefore probably be explained, with Michael Billig’s (1995) words, as the expression of a shift from the “waved flag” to the “unwaved flag”, that is, from a politically marked claim to a politically unmarked claim. Analogously, it could also be explained with Kathryn Woolard as expressions of two different ideological complexes, the one of authenticity and the one of anonymity: “When authenticity is the legitimating ideology of a language [and a culture], the linguistically [or culturally] marked form is celebrated, and accent matters.” (Woolard 2006:3) And reversely, when anonymity is the legitimating ideology of a language and a culture, the linguistically and culturally unmarked form is celebrated. 



Laima Kalėdienė, Lietuvių kalbos institutas 

KODŲ KAITA LIETUVIŲ TARMĖSE 

1. Remiantis įvairių lietuvių tarmių sociolingvistiniais duomenimis, pranešime aptariami bendriausi kodų kaitos bruožai lietuvių tarmėse. 
2. Didžiausią įtaką kodų kaitai turi kalbėjimo situacija. Oficialiųjų pokalbių dalyviai kiek dažniau vartoja bendrinės kalbos lyčių, neoficialiųjų – tarminių. 
3. Bendrinės kalbos lyčių vartojimo dažnumas priklauso nuo interdialekto artimumo laipsnio bendrinei kalbai. 
4. Kuo pokalbis oficialesnis, tuo didesnę įtaką turi išsilavinimas. Žemesnį išsilavinimą turintys komunikantai vartoja tradicinei tarmei artimesnį interdialektą, o turintys aukštąjį išsilavinimą – atvirkščiai. Vis dėlto tai nėra absoliutu – net ir aukštąjį išsilavinimą turintys kai kurie pokalbių dalyviai vartoja labai mažai bendrinės kalbos lyčių. Šiuo atžvilgiu itin svarbus komunikanto požiūris į vartojamą interdialektą, jo tinkamumą situacijose, reikalaujančiose bent minimalaus oficialumo. 
5. Oficialiuose pokalbiuose tradicinės tarmės lytis dažniau išlaiko vietinis jaunimas. Tai kiek stebina, nes paprastai linkstama teigti, kad geriausiai tarmę išlaiko vyresnieji tarmės atstovai. Tačiau šis reiškinys aiškintinas komunikantų išsilavinimu: nemaža dalis jaunimo grupei priklausančių kalbos vartotojų turi žemesnįjį išsilavinimą (profesinį arba aukštesnįjį), o viduriniojo amžiaus komunikantai – aukštąjį. Apskritai išsilavinimas turi mažesnę reikšmę kodų kaitos procesams buitinėse situacijose nei komunikantų amžius. 
6. Kodų kaita ir bendrinės kalbos lytys įvairaus amžiaus komunikantų kalboje dažnesnės, kai pokalbių temoms būdingas oficialumas, pavyzdžiui, politika, medicina, arba, atvirkščiai, ironizuojant, pašiepiant pašnekovą. 
7. Kai kurios tarminės lytys, paprastai laikomos ypač stipriomis, nyksta. Pavyzdžiui, beveik visiškai nebevartojama žemaitiška būtojo dažninio laiko forma, tik vyresniojo amžiaus komunikantai išlaiko dviskaitos lytis. Tai leidžia teigti, kad stipriausiai bendrinė kalba veikia tarmių morfologiją, fonetika išlaikoma daug geriau. 



Laura Kamandulytė-Merfeldienė, Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas 

KALBOS DALIŲ PASISKIRSTYMAS SAKYTINĖJE LIETUVIŲ KALBOJE 

Lietuvių kalbotyroje nemažai darbų skirta funkciniams rašytinės kalbos stiliams, tačiau vis dar trūksta išsamesnės sakytinės kalbos analizės. Šio straipsnio tikslas – remiantis Sakytinės lietuvių kalbos tekstynu, aptarti sakytinės kalbos registrų įvairovę, sudaryti jų klasifikaciją ir ja naudojantis išanalizuoti kalbos dalių vartojimo dažnumą. Tyrimo metu gauti rezultatai lyginami su rašytinės kalbos tyrimų duomenimis. Atlikta kalbos dalių vartojimo sakytinėje kalboje analizė parodė, kad kalbos dalių vartojimo dažnumas susijęs su registro pobūdžiu, o skirtinguose sakytinės kalbos registruose skiriasi kalbos dalių vartojimo ypatybės. Palyginus sakytinės kalbos registruose vartojamų kalbos dalių dažnumą su kalbos dalių pasiskirstymu funkciniuose rašytinės kalbos stiliuose, pastebėta: oficialaus šnekos pobūdžio registrai (ypač akademinis, viešosios komunikacijos) artimesni rašytinei kalbai nei familiaraus šnekos pobūdžio registrai. Oficialieji registrai artimiausi dalykiniam ir moksliniam funkciniams stiliams, familiaraus šnekos pobūdžio registrai – beletristiniam funkciniam stiliui. Atliktas tyrimas leido formuluoti išvadą, kad sakytinės kalbos atmainų skyrimas oficialumo ir familiarumo atžvilgiu yra svarbus: registrų, skiriamų pagal šnekos pobūdį, situaciją, socialinius dalyvių vaidmenis, analizė atskleidžia kalbos dalių vartojimo skirtumus taip, kaip funkciniai stiliai atskleidžia skirtumus rašytinės kalbos atmainose. 



Viktoria V. Kazakovskaya, Russian Academy of Sciences 
Ingrida Balčiūnienė, Vytautas Magnus University 

INTERROGATIVES IN RUSSIAN AND LITHUANIAN MOTHERESE: DO WE COMMUNICATE WITH OUR CHILDREN IN THE SAME WAY? 

The paper deals with adult interrogatives, which appear to be one the most frequent and typical methods of communicating with young children. The main objective of the investigation was to identify and to compare a variety of and the distribution of interrogatives in Russian and Lithuanian motherese. The analysis was based on the longitudinal data of a Russian boy Vanja (2;0–2;8) and a Lithuanian girl Monika (2;0–2;8). The transcribed corpus of conversations between children and their parents was annotated for a multipurpose automatic linguistic analysis, using tools of the program CHILDES (Child Language Data Exchange System). During the investigation, pragmatic, functional, structural and formal features of parental interrogatives were analysed. Following the analysis of conversations between the target children and their parents, the following can be stated. In both Russian and Lithuanian languages the majority of parental interrogatives (87,1–88,2% in Lithuanian; 86,1–90,5% in Russian) are related to the content of a child’s previous sentence (i.e. conversational questions), while reactions to the form of a child’s previous sentence (i.e. metadiscursive questions) are rare. However, two differences were noted between pragmatic subtypes of conversational questions and between formal subtypes of both conversational and metadiscursive questions. Firstly, the pragmatic analysis indicated an increase in question requests for information (5,8% – 11,5% – 39,1%) and a decrease in question repair of conversation (94,2% – 88,5% – 60,9%) were observed in the Lithuanian corpus, while the percentage of these questions seems to remain relatively unchanged in the Russian corpus (questions requests for information contain 6,6% – 8,7% – 7,3% of all parental conversational questions). Secondly, a differing usage of the question repetitions (i.e. one of the formal subtypes of questions) was noted in that these questions are much more frequent in the Russian corpus (~34,5%) than in the Lithuanian one (~13,1%). Moreover, the number of conversational question repetitions increased significantly in the Russian corpus (3,8% – 12,1% – 18,9%) and decreased in the Lithuanian corpus (7,5% – 4,9% – 2,7%), while the number of metadiscursive question repetitions increased in the Lithuanian corpus (6,9% – 12,1% – 14,4%), while it remained relatively constant (~26%) in the Russian corpus. With the exception of these differences, interrogatives in both Russian and Lithuanian motherese are generally used for the same conversational strategies, and their form and structure seem to be similar or even identical. This leads us to the conclusion that a correlation between parental conversational strategy and the type of language can be identified. However, the cultural aspect may not be excluded and consequently other languages (especially those which are close typologically, but far apart culturally) are to be the subject of further study. 



Eleonora Khayrullina, Ufa State Aviation Technical University 

TRANSLATION OF TECHNICAL TEXT CONSIDERED VIA PSYCHOLINGUISTIC APPROACH 

The paper considers the process of technical text translation in the light of well – known hypothesis by Allan Paivio (1965) whose idea on verbal – logical and concrete – imaginal aspects of the matter seems to be very fruitful. There are some publications which claim that such a hypothesis is justified from the point of view on the organization of a human brain functional activity. So this is the reason to use hypothetic idea as a foundation for psycholinguistic model. However the translation of namely technical texts has many specific features. These materials typically have relatively regular structure completed by the professional terms belonging to the flexible thesaurus. In turn the contents of the thesaurus highly depend on the progress in the correspondent technological area. Sometimes the old terms are replaced by the new ones very promptly.The author performs an analysis of both translation aspects. Within verbal – logical side she investigates the logical procedures necessary for interpreter to provide an equivalence of the descriptions or the proofs in original and translated text versions. It has been shown that the above procedures look like a kind of the so called ‘algorithmic reasoning’ with standard primitive blocks composed into the complex sequence of logical conclusions. The concrete – imaginal aspect of the translation process is observed through the glasses of ‘conditional images’ associated with temporal meanings of the professional terms due to the current level of technological development. It is interesting to verify a balance between concrete-imaginal and verbal – logical aspects of the translation which has to be achieved for producing an adequate reader’s response to the text concepts. The main positions of the paper are illustrated by the examples of English – Russian and Russian – English translations of the texts which outline the new results in the physics of metals and nanotechnologies. 



Ana Klementjevienė, Europos humanitarinis universitetas 

IMIGRANTŲ ĮVAIZDIS VIEŠAJAME DISKURSE LIETUVOJE 

Šio pranešimo tikslas yra išnagrinėti imigrantų įvaizdį viešajame diskurse Lietuvoje. Keliama hipotezė, kad imigrantų įvaizdis yra hiperbolizuotas, siekiama nustebinti, sužadinti stiprius, dažniausiai neigiamus jausmus. Atliekama semantinė populiariausių lietuviškų dienraščių analizė, nagrinėjami dažniausiai pasikartojantys lingvistiniai vienetai, konstruojantys imigranto įvaizdį mūsų šalyje. 
Imigracijos klausimas yra aktualus visoms ES valstybėms narėms, kurios priima atvykėlius iš kitų kraštų. Migracijos politikos klausimų sprendimas, kaip ir daugelis kitų ES politikos krypčių, yra sprendžiamas nacionalinio bei viršnacionalinio elito lygmeniu, todėl elito koncepcija šiuo atveju tampa labai svarbi. Šiuo metu kalbant apie vieningą Europą ir besigilinant į jos svarbiausias politikos sritis, elito studijos gali suteikti naują požiūrį bei išplėsti studijuojamo objekto tyrimų lauką. Daugelis autorių teigia, kad Europos identiteto pagrindas kilo iš savęs ir Kito supriešinimo. Kartu su imigracijos įstatymais reikia kvestionuoti ir vyraujančias europines tapatumo formas. Požiūris į imigrantus ir mažumas įvairuoja priklausomai nuo Europos šalies. Tačiau ne paslaptis, kad daugelis europiečių, tarp jų ir elito bei vadinamosios masės nariai (žr. Lahav, 2004; 105–6), yra labai susirūpinę esama situacija. Tikėtina, tokiam požiūriui susiformuoti įtakos turėjo Europos populistinės partijos. Priešiškas požiūris į imigraciją ir imigrantus yra formuojamas žiniasklaidos. Dauguma nerimauja dėl to, kad jų gyvenimo būdui, nusistovėjusiems gyvenimo standartams bei gerovei iškilo grėsmė. Taigi migracijos klausimas tampa saugumo klausimu (žr. Huysmans, 2000). Galima teigti, kad požiūris į migraciją šalyse dažnai priklauso ne tiek nuo realios situacijos ir imigrantų skaičiaus toje šalyje, bet nuo politinių partijų tikslų, kurių siekiant formuojamas visuomenės požiūris. Dažnai toks požiūris būna nepagrįstas. Nerimas dėl migracijos ir imigrantų pagrįstas ne realiais skaičiais ar realiai kilusia grėsme, bet tų grėsmių įsivaizdavimu. Realizmo krypties tarptautiniams santykiams skirtoje literatūroje grėsmė yra apibūdinama kaip situacija, kurioje individas arba individų grupė gali arba ketina sukelti neigiamus padarinius kitai grupei (Davis 2000; 10) Racionali ar neracionali yra ši baimė, ją galima pagrįsti statistika. Vyriausybės, atliekančios statistinę analizę, dažnai savaip interpretuoja skaičius ir padeda palaikyti stereotipus apie imigrantus kaip apie žmones, kurie siekia kuo greičiau užkariauti Europą ir išvilioti gėrybes iš sunkiai dirbančių europiečių. Socialinis konstrukcionizmas koncentruojasi ne tiek į realias grėsmes grupei, kiek į kolektyvinį grėsmių suvokimą, nes grėsmės paprastai būna latentiškos ir tikėtinos (jos gali būti arba jų gali nebūti), o konkretus grėsmės apibrėžimas gali daryti įtaką tolesniam situacijos supratimui ir tolesniems kolektyviniams veiksmams. Todėl grėsmės kuriai nors politinei bendruomenei vaizdiniai, sukurti ir išryškinti nacionalinio elito, iš esmės siejasi su kolektyvinės tapatybės konstravimu, kurį savo ruožtu veikia elito socializacijos procesas ir patirtys. Čia verta atsigręžti į socialinio konstruktyvizmo teorija, kuri sutelkia dėmesį į visuomenines nuostatas (vertybes), socialinių situacijų suvokimą ir šio situacijų suvokimo bei interpretavimo pagrindu elito daromus strateginius ir taktinius politinius pasirinkimus. 



Ina Klijūnaitė, Šiaulių universitetas 
Juozas Korsakas, Šiaulių universitetas 

LIETUVIŲ KALBOS PUSDALYVIŲ DAŽNINIS VARTOJIMAS 

Pusdalyvis, kaip veiksmažodžio forma, palyginti mažokai tyrinėtas lingvistinės statistikos metodais, todėl nepakankamai aprašytas dažninio vartojimo kalbos leksinėje sistemoje požiūriu (įvairių stilių tekstuose). Tokio pobūdžio rezultatai turi teorinę ir taikomąją reikšmę. Mat, turėdami bent konstatuojamuosius matematinės statistikos duomenis, galėtume konkrečiau įvertinti, kaip pusdalyvių dažninis vartojimas pakito, tarkim, nuo K. Donelaičio laikų, t. y. beveik per 300 metų. Kita vertus, toks tyrimas teikia idėjas bei konkrečius faktus taikomojo pobūdžio darbams, pavyzdžiui, leksikografijai, lingvodidaktikai ir pan. (tuo pagrindu skatintina imtis mokomųjų žodynėlių ar vadovėlių rašymo užsieniečiams bei svetur gyvenantiems lietuviams, kurie mokosi lietuvių kalbos, t. y. glotodidaktikos tikslams). Tyrime teikiami pusdalyvių dažninio vartojimo rezultatai, gauti labai didelės imties pamatu. Statistinės analizės duomenys parengti VDU Tekstyno pagrindu. Pusdalyviai apibūdinami tekstų įvairovės aspektu, pamatinės veiksmažodžio formos ir darinio lingvostatistinio santykio atžvilgiu (pusdalyvių giminės bei skaičiaus charakteristikomis, išreikštomis absoliučiais ir santykiniais skaičiais). Išnagrinėtieji veiksmažodžiai, kaip pamatiniai leksinės sistemos vienetai bei pusdalyvių (darinių/vedinių) atsiradimo pagrindas, buvo statistiškai didelio dažnumo ir labai reti (ribiniai), pažymėti vienetiniu dažniu. Mat norėta apžvelgti skirtingo ar pakankamai įvairaus lingvostatistikos pamato darinius (vedinius). Pagrindiniai lietuvių kalbos pusdalyvių dažninio vartojimo tyrimo rezultatai: a) nuo K. Donelaičio laikų, t. y. beveik per 300 metų, pusdalyvių (vedinių) lingvostatistinės tendencijos mažai tepasikeitė: didelio dažnumo veiksmažodžiai išliko patikimas pamatas pusdalyviams (vediniams) atsirasti; mažo dažnumo veiksmažodžiai nebuvo pagrindas pusdalyviams rastis ir todėl didelėje imtyje kartais jų visiškai nerasta; b) vyriškosios giminės pusdalyvių rasta vidutiniškai 73,76%; moteriškosios – 26,24%; c) vienaskaita pavartotų pusdalyvių būta vidutiniškai 70,13%; daugiskaita – 29,87%; d) didelio dažnumo veiksmažodžiai (bendratis) vidutiniškai sudarė 95%; taigi jų vediniams (pusdalyviams) teko apie 5%; iš to skaičiaus: su –DAMAS – 2,45%; su -DAMA – 0,94%; su -DAMI – 1,42%; su -DAMOS – 0,15%. Pranešime teikiamos 2 lentelės ir 2 grafikai. 



Rasa Klioštoraitytė, Vilniaus universitetas 

AUTORIAUS POZICIJA MOKSLINIO STILIAUS TEKSTUOSE ITALŲ IR LIETUVIŲ KALBOSE 

Pranešimo tikslas – aptarti pagrindinius autoriaus pozicijos raiškos būdus mokslinio stiliaus tekstuose italų kalba ir juos palyginti su autoriaus pozicijos raiška mokslinio stiliaus tekstuose lietuvių kalba; išanalizuoti, kaip perteikiama autoriaus pozicija verčiant mokslinio stiliaus tekstus iš italų kalbos į lietuvių kalbą. Tyrimui pasirinkta įvairių tipų mokslinio stiliaus tekstų (monografijų, vadovėlių, mokslinių publikacijų, recenzijų, pranešimų) italų kalba. Mokslinio stiliaus tekstų vertimo iš italų kalbos į lietuvių kalbą analizei pasirinkti tik kalbotyros mokslo darbai italų kalba ir jų vertimai į lietuvių kalbą. 



Elena Kulikova, Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod 

ANALYSIS OF VERBAL MEANS SYSTEM IN THE ADVERTISING DISCOURSE 

The development of the traditional mass media and the appearance of new ones, the formation of phatic communication and electronic literature influence system characteristics of a language. The advertising language is the same natural language with its all manifold expressive means. Its difference from other discourses (coherent texts with pragmatic, sociocultural, psychological factors) consists in the sphere of practical and communicative aims and tasks which are reflected in principles of choice of grammatical and lexical units, stylistic devices; particular syntax, the structuring and organization of printed material, the usage of different sign system elements). Publicity gives preference to modified language units in order to attract and amaze the customers. The objective of the paper is to analyze modified language means from the viewpoint of pragmatics in modern advertising. There are several distinctive features of the mass media discourse. Firstly, it shows the modern language and culture state of the society. Language state allows us to create the “big picture” of modern language functioning at the very moment of its development and to trace the formation of new language units. Cultural specific character can be observed in the choice of language means (namely precedential phenomena that are relevant in cognitive aspect, known and currently used in the speech of considerable part of representatives of lingual cultural community). Secondly, the mass media discourse is the sort of institutional discourse. It is a social product that cannot help reflecting the tendency to globalization that characterizes present-day society. Along with this strong tendency mass media texts are sure to demonstrate society values and its culture. The usage of precedential phenomena is an effective means of appealing to cultural audience identity. Thirdly, the mass media discourse is remarkable for its manipulating, that is the orientation toward purposeful controlling over recipient perception. It is reached due to structural peculiarities and a different means system. Advertising is the part of the mass media discourse. The verbal part of a publicity text has an inner structure: as a rule, this is a heading, body text and echo-phrase. There is a wide range of expressive means on all structure and language levels.Modified language units taken by means of the successive selection from the popular magazines (“Cosmopolitan”, “Men’s Health”, the Economist (2000−2009)) were interpreted with the help of the descriptive method, with the usage of comparison, generalization, and classification means, by dint of contextual and pragmatic analysis. While selecting and analyzing the material, the data of idiom, proverb, quotation and popular expression dictionaries were used. On the whole the general characteristic of advertising texts at the language level is using diverse syntactic-stylistic tools of expressiveness: tropes, stylistic figures, phraseological units etc. The frequency of occurrence of different expressive means in publicity texts proved that tropes dominate by percentage. For some advertising texts the presence of precedential phenomena is typical and when they are used in a modified form they become very strong means of influence. Figurative language means make the advertising text vivid and modernized.

 

This research was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Project no. 10-06-09273).




Elvira Küün, Tallinn University 

RESEARCH ON THE ESTONIAN MEDICAL WORKERS’ PROFICIENCY IN ESTONIAN AND OTHER LANGUAGES 

Availability of medical services is one of the most important human rights. The Estonian state has established the requirement of service in Estonian language as a human right from 1989. In addition, provision of medical services to patients also presumes the opportunity to use, when communicating with doctors and nurses, another language, which suits both parties, including the native language of patients. Results of examinations carried out by the Language Inspectorate show that the language skills of health care professionals do not always conform to requirements. Since 2002, the Language Inspectorate has inspected the Estonian language skills of 2022 health care professionals and social welfare workers, and in the case of 1627 of those, it did not conform to requirements (80%). Although the number of health care professionals and social welfare workers, whom the Language Inspectorate has examined for their Estonian language skills, varies in different years, the Estonian language proficiency level has not been in conformity with requirements in the last years in the case of over 80% of examined persons either.Thus, the right to receive medical service in Estonian established by the Estonian state may not be guaranteed everywhere in Estonia. Geographically, the most serious problems occur in Ida-Viru County, Estonian language skills are also poorer among nursing staff; problems arise when communicating with specialist doctors. It has appeared recently that possibilities for medical service in Estonian language are diminishing in connection with doctors from other countries commencing work. Consequently, the wider purpose of the research is to chart the language use relating to primary medical service as fulfilment of a state obligation in medical institutions, which is also one of the key issues concerning the availability of medical services. Direct objectives are as follows: to obtain an overview of the opportunities to use Estonian language and of the situation in the communication between patients and the personnel of medical institutions (including doctors and nursing staff); to obtain an overview of the opportunities to communicate in foreign languages in various types of medical institutions (in family health centres and in health care institutions providing specialised medical care); to make proposals based on research results for the activities of those designing a new strategy for developing Estonian language.According to those results, methods of research were devised and research was conducted. Carrying out the research “Research on the Estonian Medical Workers’ Proficiency in Estonian and other Languages”, which was ordered and financed by the Ministry of Education and Research, included various stages of research, which were closely connected with each other, and information collected during earlier activities was implemented upon performing subsequent works and upon formulating conclusions. The research group consisted of three members, and five experts assessed the research in its final stage. Statistical data processing pack SPSS 13.0 was used in analysing quantitative data. Correlation and rehabilitation analysis were used in analysing research data. 



Harry Lönnroth, University of Tampere 
Alexandr Zelenin, University of Tampere 

SWEDISH AND RUSSIAN IN INLAND FINLAND: A SOCIO-CULTURAL LINGUISTIC APPROACH 

In our paper we will discuss the insular Finland-Swedish and Russian language community of the city of Tampere, Finland, with special emphasis on (historical) multilingual encounters between the two language groups. In our talk, we will look at the relations between the Swedish- and Russian-speaking population in the industrial city of Tampere by identifying key issues and approaches, and future research prospects (see for example Kirmo 2005 and Suodenjoki 2009). The talk is a part of a planned research project about the relationship between Swedish (PhD Harry Lönnroth, Scandinavian languages) and Russian (PhD Aleksandr Zelenin, Russian language and culture) at the School of Modern Languages and Translation Studies, University of Tampere. 



Nijolė Maskaliūnienė, Vilniaus universitetas 

LEKSINIŲ IR GRAMATINIŲ KONVERSIJOS PRIEMONIŲ KORELIACIJA VERTIME 

Dar O. Jespersenas (1924, 164) pastebėjo, kad anglų kalboje yra veiksmažodžių, kurių leksinės reikšmės yra susijusios tokiu pat santykiu, kaip ir tų veiksmažodžių veikiamosios bei neveikiamosios rūšies formos, pvz., A precedes B = B follows A arba A is followed by B = B is preceded by A. Leksinės ir gramatinės konversijos atvejus aptaria ir kiti autoriai (žr. Lyons 1968; Apresjan 1974; Kastovsky 1981; Maskaliūnienė 1989; 2003; 2010), kurie nustatė, kad konversinių santykių raiška kalbose skiriasi: vienose tas pats santykis gali būti išreikštas leksinėmis, kitose – gramatinėmis priemonėmis, pvz., lietuvių kalboje vartojami konversinę porą sudarantys sangrąžiniai veiksmažodžiai Ežeras atspindi dangų – Dangus atsispindi ežere, o anglų kalboje būtina pasyvinė transformacija, nes atitinkamos konversyvų poros nėra, plg. The lake reflects the sky – The sky is reflected in the lake. Pranešime keliama hipotezė, kad verčiant tekstą iš vienos kalbos į kitą galimi leksinių konversyvų pakeitimai gramatiniais. Be to, sakiniai, kuriuose vartojamas vienas ar kitas konversinės poros narys, gali būti išversti ne tiesiogiai, bet vartojant kitą konversinės poros narį, pvz., He (John) received a warning letter some time ago, but there was no reaction verčiama Perspejimo laiškas Džonui buvo išsiųstas jau senokai, bet nesulaukėme jokios reakcijos. Aptariamos tokių pakeitimų sąlygos ir implikacijos. 



Giovanni Nadiani, University of Bologna at Forli’ 

WHICH LANGUAGE POLICY FOR “DEFEATED” LANGUAGES? THE CASE SUDY OF “ROMAGNOL” 

In the last years the “odd”, old and still unresolved ‘language question’ arose again and again; one which is by no means an Italian or even a European prerogative – quite the opposite (as Hagège 2002 shows) given that the logos is a fundamental element in any people’s construction of its own identity – but one which can also be exploited as a means to exclude those who are different in a sort of ‘identity radicalism’ and ‘identity folly’ (Meyer 2002), as is shown by the violence, the divisiveness, and the opportunism which have characterized the discussion in the Italian mass media over the last year (cf. Cicala 2009; Ghidetti 2009; Olivieri 2009; Serra 2009), often falling back on a narrow-minded view of the past, and attracting the criticism of international observers who are struck once more by yet another Italian ‘anomaly’. In the face of the dominant presence of a very few major, ‘victorious’, languages that irresistibly spread their respective cultures across the planet, efforts are being made in different parts of the world to rise to the challenge and not succumb, linguistically and culturally, and to try and metabolize these products through the filter of the old languages of home. To this end, time and money is being invested, despite the articulate and documented scepticism of some (cf. Fishman 2001a; 2001b; 2001c), to try and update these ‘defeated’ languages (cf. Nadiani 2006), or at least preserve what is left of that flavour of difference for a little while longer (Nadiani 2009). An arduous, almost impossible, task, but one which involves researchers from within the fields of language planning (Sprachplanungswissenschaft) (cf. Dell’Acquila & Iannàccaro 2004), language engineering, and technical and multimedia translation (cf. Zoli 2006). The study gives a short survey of all the initiatives taken on different levels by many free associations and official institutions in order to promote and safeguard Romagnol, a romance autonomous dialect (not a variety of the official Italian) spoken in the region Romagna. 



Veronika Paljasma, Tallinn University 

GENDER AFFIXES AND NAMES OF PROFESSIONS IN THE ESTONIAN LANGUAGE 

Despite the grammatical gender not existing in the Estonian language, male and female versions of names of professions can be formed using affixes. One might believe Estonian to be gender-neutral and not inclined to prefer one gender to the other but evidence shows this not the case when it comes to professions. The research looks into the use of gender affixes in one of Estonia’s biggest daily newspapers during the last 10 years to find out whether professions which are more often than not attributed to men take on the female affix more frequently than a male affix and vice versa. A name of a profession marked by an affix of either gender reinforces it being a deviation from the norm, which would be the opposite gender. Hence, the aim of this paper is to find whether gender stereotypes found in language use correspond to those that exist in the society. For instance, it was found that that the word “female politician” (naispoliitik) occurred 26 times more frequently than “male politician” (meespoliitik) which reflects the fact that most Estonian politicians are in fact men. Yet, the word “female doctor” (naisarst) occurred almost twice as often as “male doctor” (meesarst) although statistics show that a large majority of Estonian doctors are women. Social backgrounds of the profession and contexts in which the words occur need to be looked into in order to make any suggestions. There might be social narratives which reinforce the connotation of the word “doctor” to remain that of a male despite the fact that in reality most doctors in Estonia are female. The paper studies a corpus of journalistic language due to its ability of creating and reinforcing gender roles and stereotypes in language use and in the society. 



Vineta Porina, University of Latvia 

STATE LANGUAGE USE PROMOTION IN LATVIA: SUCCESSES AND FAILURES 

The fact about 19 years what passed since regaining independence and the State Language Law in Latvia is a reason to think that Latvian is a dominant language in the country. But it only becomes a dominant language de facto and this process is slow and difficult. Many efforts since 1991 were devoted to interrupt mechanism of social bilingualism in native and in Russian language and to promote Latvian language use in the state, e. g., implemented state program of Integration, state program of Latvian language acquiring, completely changed ethnic minority school system, retrained teachers for bilingual education, organized state language institutions, done scientifically based popularization of importance of state language use etc. As a result of previous mentioned and other factors – the percentage of the entire population who are speakers of Latvian has increased from 61.7% in 1989 to 79% in 2000 and to 93% in 2008 (Latvijas 2000. gada tautskaites rezultāti 2002, Valoda 2008). The path of the state language use promotion is also close connected with ethnodemographic, sociopolitical and other extralingistic factors, where unfortunately are not obvious rapid changes. Assessing from the latest biggest survey data done by Baltic Institute of Social Sciences (Valoda 2008), 69.1% minority respondents (in year 2000 – 84%) at home spoke mostly or exclusively in Russian, more often Russian than Latvian – by 16.9% (in year 2000 – 12%), more often Latvian than Russian – by 5.2% (year 2000 – 2%) and mainly or exclusively in another language – by 4.9% (year 2000 – 1%). We can’t speak about assimilation of minorities in the Latvian language, as the Latvian language was used at home only by approximately 5% of ethnic minorities, which was slightly more than 8 years ago. Data show that the percentage of respondents who speak mostly or only in Russian at home tends to decrease. The Latvian language is used more often than Russian in workplaces. The Latvian language use in workplaces in the Latvian group since year 2000 has decreased. Also the use of the Russian language has decreased in the workplaces in the group of minorities. The Russ ian language use has decreased among ethnic minority people in communication with their friends and acquaintances. This can be explained either by the fact that there is happening a progressive adaptation of the Russian language collective to the Latvian language collective, or there is a sharp change in the range of friends and acquaintances according to the linguistic affiliation. 40.2% of minority respondents (in year 2000 – 42%) on the street and in shops conversed in Russian more frequently than in Latvian, 31.1% (in year 2000 – 35%) – mainly or exclusively in Russian, 18% in years 2000 and 2008 – more in Latvian than Russian – and 7.7% (in year 2000 – 5%) – mainly or only in Latvian, resp., on the streets and shops more than 70% of minority respondents used Russian most often what means that on the streets and in shops minority people have expressed functional monolingualism in Russian. Several failures in state language promotion are recognized. Among of the most significant is deleting (in 2000) of the clause indicating the link between language level and job requirements in preparation for EU membership. After this fact, language certification was seen more as a formality and its effect diminished, it no longer functions as a major reason for learning Latvian. Also unconsequences in the state language legislation, dominance of left oriented political forces in self-governments, background of political relationships with Russia, divided press space by languages, lack of modern management methods in linguistic policy are those factors what hinder state language use promotion. 



Jogilė Teresa Ramonaitė, Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas 

Į ITALIJĄ ĮVAIKINTŲ VAIKŲ KALBA ĮTĖVIŲ ŽVILGSNIU 

Į užsienį įvaikinami vaikai susiduria su itin dideliais pasikeitimais visose gyvenimo srityse. Svarbi šių pasikeitimų dalis yra nauja kalba, kurią jiems reikia išmokti kaip įmanoma greičiau, tačiau gana dažnai jos reikia mokytis kaip antrosios kalbos. Pastaraisiais metais daugiausia iš Lietuvos įvaikinamų vaikų išvyksta į Italiją. Pranešime pristatomi pirmieji rezultatai iš sociolingvistinės apklausos, skirtos įtėviams italams, siekiant išsiaiškinti jų vaikų italų kalbos įsisavinimo lygį, greitį, įtėvių požiūrį į užsienio kalbas, pagalbą mokantis italų kalbos. Iš šių rezultatų stengiamasi rasti galimus veiksnius, kurie galėjo turėti įtakos vaikų italų kalbos įsisavinimui. Apklausa yra psicholingvistinio tyrimo apie įvaikintų vaikų kalbos raidą dalis. 



Meilutė Ramonienė, Vilnius University 
Extra Guus, Tilburg University 

MULTILINGUALISM IN LITHUANIAN CITIES: AIMS AND OUTCOMES OF A HOME LANGUAGE SURVEY IN VILNIUS, KAUNAS AND KLAIPEDA 

Derived from the experiences with the Multilingual Cities Project, carried out in 6 Western European multicultural cities (cf. G. Extra and K. Yağmur, eds., 2004, Urban Multilingualism in Europe. Immigrant Minority Languages at Home and School. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters), a home language survey has been carried out in the primary grades of almost all primary schools in Vilnius, Kaunas and Klaipeda. The total sample consists of almost 24,000 pupils, most of them being 8–10 years old. 
After an introduction to the aims of the project, the design of the questionnaire and the processing and analysis of the resulting data, information will be provided on the composition of the sample and the distribution of reported home languages. The top-8 of reported languages other than Lithuanian contains the vast majority of all languages referred to, i.e., Russian, English, Polish, German, Belarusian, French, Ukrainian, and Latvian. For these languages groups, crosslinguistic perspectives will be offered on language vitality in terms of reported language proficiency, language choice, language dominance, and language preference. For each of these 8 language groups, language profiles will also be outlined in pseudolongitudinal perspectives for the age range of 8–10 years. 



Birutė Ryvitytė, Vilnius University 

TRENDS IN ACADEMIC DISCOURSE ANALYSIS 

This presentation is an attempt to discuss the trends in the study of Academic Discourse in English and Lithuanian. Over the last few decades, the field of academic writing has become the focus of research by applied linguists. Their main aim has been to reveal the complexity of the intercultural, generic and textual issues involved in this field. Applied linguists differ in the emphasis they give to either text or context. It is customary to identify three broad schools: a) North American New Rhetoric studies, b) Australian Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) and c) British English for Specific Purposes (ESP) approach. The first orientation is the New Rhetoric group, working mainly within a rhetorical tradition and strongly influenced by Bakhtin’s claim that while genres involve regularities and typification, generic forms ‘are much more flexible, plastic and free’ (Bakhtin, 1986:79). The New Rhetoric school concerns itself with investigating contexts. Their methodologies tend to be ethnographic (including participant observation, interviews, document collection) rather than text analytic, with the aim of uncovering the attitudes, values and beliefs of the communities of text users that genres imply and construct. The second orientation, based on Halliday’s (1994) Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) has focused on the social purposes of genres and the description of the schematic (rhetorical) structures that have evolved to serve these purposes. SFL is concerned with the relationship between language and its functions in social settings. Social context is treated as a stratified system comprising the levels of register and genre. This orientation seeks to explicate the distinctive stages of genres together with the patterns of lexical, grammatical and cohesive choices. The third orientation, generally referred to as the ESP approach, steers between these two views. Like the New Rhetoric school, it employs Bakhtinian notions of intertextuality and dialogism, but it also draws on SFL understandings of text structure. The ESP approach sees genre as comprising a class of structured communicative events employed by specific discourse communities whose members share broad communicative purposes (Swales, 1990). 
Research of academic discourse in Lithuanian cannot be claimed to be extensive. Early studies concentrated on defining academic style as a functional style, mainly in terms of sentence length and syntactic structures. In later studies academic writing is presented as a process involving a writer and a reader. Recent work on academic writing in Lithuanian is taking a closer look at the academic text trying to identify typical lexico-grammatical patterning, for example, metalanguage used to signal the structure of an academic text, cognitive structure and rhetorical strategies in institutional academic reviews, use of hedging in Lithuanian academic discourse, etc. 



Anna Ruskan, Vilnius University 

THE EVIDENTIAL ADVERBS EVIDENTLY AND AKIVAIZDŽIAI FROM A CROSS-LINGUISTIC PERSPECTIVE 

Evidential adverbs are discussed within the category of evidentiality, which has been recently defined as a conceptual domain whose function is to indicate the author’s cognitive and/or communicative justification for a statement (Wiemer 2008). The main functions of evidential adverbs are inferences based on different types of perceptual data or reasoning and hearsay. Evidential adverbs as well as other markers of evidentiality have been thoroughly researched intra-linguistically. However, cross-linguistic studies of evidential markers based on parallel corpora and contrastive methodology are also an effective tool for describing their semantics, as the analysis of the cross-linguistic correspondences of the English evidential adverbs in Dutch, French, Swedish, German (Aijmer, Simon-Vandenbergen 2007) has illustrated. The aim of this pilot study is to establish whether the semantic cognates evidently and akivaizdžiai, whose primary meaning relates to visual perception, but which in contemporary English and Lithuanian function as evidential markers, are cross-linguistic equivalents in Lithuanian and English. The study covers the quantitative analysis of the types of translation correspondences of the adverbs as well as the qualitative analysis which discusses the types of evidence the adverbs refer to and the degree of certainty they express. The types of correspondences are identified on the basis of their form and function in a clause, e.g. adverbials, adjectives, verbs. The data for the study are obtained from the parallel English-Lithuanian corpus placed in the online Corpus of Contemporary Lithuanian Language and the bidirectional translation corpus ParaCorp E-LT-E compiled by Audronė Šolienė at Vilnius University. The findings of the pilot study demonstrate that the semantic cognates evidently and akivaizdžiai are not cross-linguistic equivalents since the most frequent correspondence of evidently is the adverbial matyt and the most frequent correspondences of akivaizdžiai are the adverbials apparently, obviously, clearly. The English adverb evidently and its most frequent Lithuanian correspondence matyt denote inferences based on visual perception, reasoning or unspecified source of information and often trigger the author’s uncertainty. In contrast, the Lithuanian adverb akivaizdžiai and its most frequent English correspondences commit to the author’s certainty and denote inferences based on visual perception or reasoning. Moreover, the English correspondences of akivaizdžiai functioning as adverbials of manner illustrate that the adverb akivaizdžiai retains more connection with its primary lexical meaning related to visual perception than the adverb evidently. Thus the clai m can be made that the semantic potential of these adverbs in English and Lithuanian is different and they reflect different degrees of grammaticalization. The English adverb evidently has been grammaticalized to a greater extent than its semantic cognate akivaizdžiai in Lithuanian. 



Aurelija Tamošiūnaitė, University of Illinois at Chicago 

LITHUANIAN-AMERICAN LANGUAGE ATTITUDES: A CASE STUDY OF CHICAGO LITHUANIAN 

This presentation will be based on the data of 20 sociolinguistic interviews with second and third generation Lithuanian-Americans, conducted during January–April of 2010 as part of the project “Heritage Lithuanian and Polish in Chicago: Digital Oral Corpus and Proficiency Exam” funded by American Council of Learned Societies. The main aim of the project is to create an empirical background (digital oral corpus) for future studies of Heritage Lithuanian in the U.S., as well as to design a syllabus for the heritage language course in order to bring heritage speakers’ linguistic competence to an advanced-mastery level. The existing linguistic studies on Lithuanian-American (Pažūsis 2009 [collection of earlier published papers], Macevičiūtė 2000, Miliūnaitė 2006) mainly focused on the changes in phonological, morphological, lexical, and discourse level as compared to Standard Lithuanian. However, it is also important to look at language attitudes and language choices among Lithuanian-Americans, since they can provide more insights for the future of Lithuanian in the U.S.Based on my research, in this presentation I will focus on the attitudes that Lithuanian-Americans have toward Lithuanian language: maintenance, transmission to future generations, structure (purity), language choice, and its relation to Lithuanian (Lithuanian-American) identity. 



Laura Treimane, University of Latvia 

ANALYZING PARLIAMENTARY DISCOURSE: SYSTEMIC FUNCTIONAL PERSPECTIVE 

Parliamentary discourse represents the most formal and institutionalized variety of political discourse. As the contemporary research suggests (Van Dijk, 2004, Bayley, 2004, Ilie, 2006), parliamentary discourse requires a contextual approach of analysis as it is largely defined by its contextual properties – the subject matter, the roles and relationship of the participants, the setting, etc. The theory of context lies at the basis of the systemic functional theory which has become recognized due to the extensive work of the British linguist Professor M.A.K. Halliday and his associates. The systemic functional view of language is that of a ‘social semiotic’ – language is a system of choices that realizes its function in a social context. The interpretation of any piece of language (text) requires the interpretation of its immediate context of situation – the nature of the activity (field), the roles of the participants (tenor) and the sym bolic organization of the text (mode). The present research explores the theoretical propositions of the systemic functional theory, highlighting the advantages, as well as the drawbacks of their practical application to discourse analysis. It investigates the frameworks of the analysis of lexico-grammatical features of the text and the contextual dimensions of field, tenor and mode. The research demonstrates the relevance of the systemic functional parameters to the analysis of parliamentary discourse where the parliamentary transcripts of the debate held at the British House of Commons and the Latvian Parliament Saeima are used as the empirical data. 



Jolita Urbanavičienė, Lietuvių kalbos institutas 

ADUTIŠKIO – KAMOJŲ AREALAS: LIETUVIŲ IR BALTARUSIŲ PARIBIO SITUACIJA 

Kamojų šnekta (Pastovių r., Baltarusija) nuolat minima kapitaliniuose dialektologijos veikaluose (LKA 1 1977; LKA 2 1982; LKA 3 1991; LKT 1970; LKTCh 2004) šalia kitų periferinių vilniškių šnektų – Apso, Gervėčių, dabar jau išnykusių Lazūnų. Tačiau išsamių žinių apie šią šnektą, priklausančią intensyvių baltų–slavų kontaktų zonai, nėra. Šiek tiek faktų galima rasti E. Grinaveckienės straipsniuose ir K. Garšvos monografijoje (2005). Kamojų sala veikiau yra nuoseklus vilniškių patarmės tęsinys Baltarusijos teritorijoje, nes, tolstant nuo pasienio, lietuviški kaimai tolydžio nyksta. Adutiškio – Kamojų arealą skaldė įvairios politinės ir administracinės ribos, tačiau vietinių gyventojų kontaktai iki pat XX a. paskutinio dešimtmečio išliko itin glaudūs. Todėl šį regioną, apimantį Adutiškio, Svirkų apylinkes Lietuvoje ir Pastovių rajono teritoriją iki Lentupio, Naročiaus ežero Baltarusijoje, galima tyrinėti kaip tam tikra prasme nedalomą vienetą, tarsi gyvą lietuvių ir baltarusių kalbų kontaktų laboratoriją. Pranešimas parengtas remiantis dviem šaltiniais: 1) Lietuvių kalbos instituto Tarmių archyve saugoma 1972–1989 m. ekspedicijų medžiaga; 2) pačios autorės pastarųjų metų įrašais, kurie padaryti kalbinant Adutiškio ir Svirkų apylinkės informantus, kilusius iš Baltarusijos pakraštinių kaimų. Medžiagos rinkimą apsunkina tai, kad nėra lengva patekti į Baltarusijos pasienio kaimus, o bet kokia statistika (etninė, kalbinė, religinė) nėra iki galo patikima, nes eliminuojami tie gyventojai, kurie savęs nepriskiria jokiai kalbinei bendrijai (tokie individai kai kuriuose kalbiniuose kolektyvuose gali sudaryti apie 30%). Dauguma šio arealo gyventojų yra dvikalbiai ar net trikalbiai, nuolat vartojantys lietuvių ir vietinę baltarusių kalbą (į šią dvikomponentę sistemą neretai įsiterpia lenkų ar rusų kalba). Pranešime aptariama paribio gyventojo kalbinė elgsena, kuriai būdinga: 1) deklaruojamoji tapatybė ne visada sutampa su vartojama kalba; 2) asmuo, nuolat vartojantis kelias skirtingas kalbas, naudojasi ta pačia artikuliacine baze; ji gali būti arba labiau lietuviška, arba labiau baltarusiška; 3) tikrieji dvikalbiai negalėtų išskirti, kuri kalba jiems yra pirminė (gimtoji), kuri – antrinė; 4) paribio gyventojams tapatybės pakeitimas – perėjimas iš vienos kalbos į kitą – nėra skausmingas: aiškios tapatybės opozicijos išsitrynusios; 5) pasirinkimas, kurią kalbą vartoti, priklauso nuo socialinės situacijos ir kalbos prestižo, o ne nuo kalbos struktūros. Pranešime apžvelgiami pagrindiniai kalbinę tapatybę formuojantys veiksniai, kuriuos galima suskirstyti į tris etapus: tautinė savimonė (šeima) → kalbinis patriotizmas (mokykla, bažnyčia) → socialinė kontrolė (kaimo bendruomenė, administracinė valdžia). 



Loreta Vaicekauskienė, Institute of Lithuanian Language 
Laima Nevinskaitė, Institute of Lithuanian Language 

STATUS AND FUNCTIONS OF RUSSIAN AND ENGLISH IN LITHUANIAN CITIES 

The presentation deals with the functions of English and Russian as two principal foreign languages in Lithuania and attitudes of Lithuanians towards them. The focus is on how geopolitical changes after regained independency have influenced the sociolinguistic situation in Lithuania and how it is perceived by the citizens in bigger cities. No discussion is presented of a commonplace theme of the spread of English; rather the status of English and Russian today and in the future is discussed. Empirical data of the research consist of more than 30 qualitative interviews with respondents from different age and social groups in Vilnius and Klaipėda. Statistical data from the survey of bigger Lithuanian cities serves as a basis for interpretation of the results. 
Analysis of the interviews shows that although English is perceived as a language with a more universal appeal and takes over the functions in the public sphere that were earlier performed by Russian, the Russian language in many contexts is still considered as sufficient or even having advantages. It possesses a certain distinctiveness, which is lacked by the commonly known English, it can be used as a language of communication with neighbouring countries, or simply is still a better known language and therefore more convenient to use. Both English and Russian serve as a tool of identification and expression of identity. 
Not surprisingly, attitudes of the respondents are not homogenous and depend, among other factors, on the level of their knowledge of English and Russian. Those who cannot speak English tend to see its universal spread in negative light and count on Russian instead. Analysis reveals no doubts about the status English as the main foreign language; however, young respondents with knowledge of both English and Russian hold positive attitudes towards Russian and it allows to claim that in the future Russian would maintain a certain niche in Lithuania, too. 



Janis Veckracis, Ventspils University College 

TRANSLATION OF BRODSKY’S POEMS: SOME GRAMMATICAL AND SEMANTIC ASPECTS OF TEXT MODALITY 

Poetic texts represent the most ample source for an analysis of language in its poetic function. Translation of poetry – texts in which their communicative and emotional meaning is continuously and dynamically developing throughout the whole process of text’s perception (reading, decoding and interpreting) – is a challenge due to the quest for adequate equivalence though the notion and concept of equivalence usually lacks any formal and specific definition. Text modality is an area of linguistic analysis implying the necessity to look at semiotics of poetic texts and functional-semantic roles of text elements and grammar. Y.R.Galperin defines, among others, two specific features of any poetic text – first, it is an independent coding system which should be decoded by readers (recipients), and, second, it always possesses some implicit meaning. In translation and work with several language codes this implies that poetic texts at their gramma tical and functional-semantic level form a complex structure of various relations which contribute to forming the intended effect on the recipient and which therefore need to be preserved in the target text. R.Jakobson indirectly indicates that any text is in a way a translation or interpretation which is further specifically interpreted depending on the concrete text application. Analysis of text modality aspects based on translations of poems written by Joseph Brodsky into the English and Latvian languages show, first, some contrastive implications of language codes in their linguistic representation, and, second, practical issues faced by translators in their struggle for adequate rendition. Along with the theoretical background the author presents a brief comparative and contrastive look at translation examples showing how rules governing specific languages both limit the translator’s flexibility in his/her creative transposition and act as a source for multiple choices at the functional and semantic level when seeking the most equivalent variant. 



Elena Vilinbakhova, St. Petersburg State University 

REPRESENTATIONS OF STEREOTYPES IN RUSSIAN LANGUAGE 

My study aims to examine representations of stereotypes in Russian language. A stereotype is understood as a mental image with the attributes of typical denotatum (Allan 2001). Stereotypes could be represented in a number of non-verbal ways – pictures, physical imitations of gestures, facial expressions, etc.,but they also reflect themselves in language components: phonology, morphology, lexicology and syntax. 
The closest to non-verbal representations is so-called linguistic mask (Vinokur 1947), when typical speech characteristics of an object or situation are imitated. For instance lexeme allo could mark the situation of a telephone talk, a guttural [R] could marks a Frenchman, and the frequent use of prefix arhi- marks Vladimir Lenin (Šmeleva, Šmelev 2001). 
Among the lexicological features are (a) the metaphoric use of a lexeme like professor as a school nickname for a clever kid; (b) semantic derivations like limonnyj ‘yellow, of typical lemon color’; (c) ways of naming things like makaronnik ‘spaghetti-eater’ for an Italian; (d) proverbs like laws of “correct” behavior in the society. 
Syntactic constructions could either (a) describe the stereotype (constructions with causal conjunctions: Ona devuška, poetomy ona liubit zvety ‘She’s a girl, so she likes flowers’); (b) contradict it (constructions with concessive and adversative conjunctions: On rabotaet v banke, no ploho zarabatyvaet ‘He works in a bank, but he earns little’ meaning ‘The people who work in a bank usually earn a lot’); (c) apply for it for an adequate interpretation (tautologies Student est’ student ‘A student is a student’ meaning ‘He is an ordinary student’). 
It is argued that there are some verbal representations in Russian that reflect not a typical image, but an ideal image of the category, such as: Vot eto drug tak drug! ‘He is a real friend / the best of friends’; Babaevskij – samyj šokolodnyi šokolad v mire! ‘Babaevskij is the best chocolate in the world; On geroj is gerojev ‘He is the best of heroes’, so we could define two types of stereotypes: typical and ideal image which corresponds to statistical norm and prescriptive norm. 



Loreta Vilkienė, Vilniaus universitetas 

AR DVIKALBYSTĖ – DVIKULTŪRĖS TAPATYBĖS LAIDAS? 

Remiantis projekto „Kalbų vartojimas ir tautinė tapatybė Lietuvos miestuose“ (2007–2009 m. rėmė Valstybinis mokslo ir studijų fondas) metu gautais duomenimis, daugiakalbystė didžiuosiuose Lietuvos miestuose yra nenuneigiamas faktas. Didžiųjų Lietuvos miestų gyventojai neabejotinai yra įgiję kelių kalbų vartojimo kompetencijos. Ypač daugiakalbystės reiškinys būdingas Lietuvos kitakalbiams gyventojams. Galima teigti, kad, pavyzdžiui, lietuvių kalbą moka beveik visi trijų didžiųjų miestų gyventojai: Vilniuje deklaravo visai lietuviškai nemoką 1 proc., Klaipėdoje – 0,2% apklaustųjų kitakalbių. 
Kadangi daugiakalbystė – įvairialypis reiškinys, ji skirstoma į tipus pagal įvairius kriterijus. Vienas jų – sąsaja su kultūra ar keliomis kultūromis. Pagal šį kriterijų asmenys yra skirstomi į dvikultūrius gimtakalbius (angl. bicultural L1), kurių kultūrinį identitetą formuoja dvi kultūros, ir vienkultūrius negimtakalbius (angl. monocultural L2), kurių kultūrinis identitetas susijęs su viena – gimtąja – kultūra. Kalba yra svarbi kultūros dalis, tačiau asmens gebėjimas vartoti kelias kalbas savaime nelemia jo keliakultūrės tapatybės. Vienas iš kultūrinio identiteto požymių – savęs priskyrimas vienai ar kitai kultūrai. 
Šiame pranešime keliamas klausimas, ar Lietuvos rusai, kurie teigia moką lietuvių kalbą, gali būti laikomi dvikultūrės tapatybės, ar jie išlieka vienkultūrio identiteto. Kitaip tariant, svarstoma, kiek lietuviškoji kultūra yra artima ir svarbi apklaustiesiems rusų tautybės asmenims. Svarstymų pamatas – kokybinių interviu analizė. 



Skaistė Volungevičienė, Vilniaus universitetas 
Alina Isilionis, Vilniaus universitetas 

TEKSTYNŲ ANALIZĖS PROGRAMA „UNITEX“ 

Kompiuteris pastaruoju metu tapo ne tik komunikacijos priemone, bet ir daugelio lingvistinių tyrimų instrumentu. Šių dienų kalbininkai savo tyrimų neįsivaizduoja be kalbinės programinės įrangos, kurios sukurta daug ir įvairios. Deja, pasinaudoti kitų sukurtais produktais dėl pačių įvairiausių priežasčių pavyksta ne visada, todėl dažniau kuriami nauji nei pritaikomi jau egzistuojantys programiniai įrankiai. 
Šio pranešimo tikslas – pristatyti Lietuvos kalbininkams tekstynų analizės programą „Unitex“.
„Unitex“ idėja kilo Prancūzijos LADL laboratorijos (Laboratoire d’Automatique Documentaire et Linguistique) profesoriui dr. Maurice Grossui. Programa pirmiausia buvo skirta prancūzų kalbos tekstynams analizuoti. Bendradarbiaujant su Miuncheno universiteto Informacijos ir kalbų apdorojimo centro (CIS) darbuotojais, ji nuolat tobulinama ir pritaikoma vis naujų kalbų analizei. Šiuo metu „Unitex“ galima apdoroti net 17 kalbų tekstus (anglų, senosios ir naujosios graikų, ispanų, italų, korėjiečių, lenkų, norvegų, prancūzų, portugalų (brazilų ir portugalų), rusų, serbų (kirilica ir lotyniškieji rašmenys), suomių, vokiečių ir tajų). „Unitex“ – laisvai prieinama vartotojams, pritaikyta visoms operacinėms sistemoms („Windows“, „Linux“, „Mac OS“) ir programinėje terpėje „Java“ veikianti programa – leidžia analizuoti žodžių dažnumus, gauti konkordansus, kurti paieškos algoritmus. Naudojantis šia programa, galima atlikti morfologinę, sintaksinę bei leksinę tekstyno analizę. 
Pranešime supažindinama su „Unitex“ programos galimybėmis ir pateikiami konkretūs jos taikymo pavyzdžiai: pristatomi vokiečių kalbos veiksmažodį atitinkančioms konstrukcijoms (vok. Funktionsverbgefüge) atpažinti sukurti algoritmai bei demonstruojamas jų veikimas bandomajame tekstyne. 



Anastassia Zabrodskaja, Tallinn University, University of Tartu 

LITHUANIAN, RUSSIAN AND POLISH LANGUAGE USE IN LITHUANIA 

According to the population census conducted in 2001, 83.45% of the population identified themselves as Lithuanians, 6.74% as Poles, 6.31% as Russians, and 2.50% as members of other ethnic groups. This paper examines Lithuanian, Russian and Polish language use among ethnic Russians, Lithuanians and Poles in Lithuania living in five different linguistic environments: Vilnius, Vilnius district, Visaginas city, Klaipėda city and Kaunas city whereas in Vilnius district municipality as well as in the town of Visaginas ethnic Lithuanians are in minority (22% and 15% respectively). 
The data come from the ethnolinguistic vitality survey conducted in the period between October 1 and December 31, 2009. The sample consists of 900 participants, 230 of them are Russian-speakers, 270 are Poles and 400 are Lithuanians. All of them were from different linguistic environments and with different backgrounds (age, social status etc). 
In terms of language use with different interlocutors, almost all Lithuanian informants in the study report speaking mainly or mostly Lithuanian with their families, friends, co-students or co-workers, during hobby activities, in shops and services or with strangers on a street. In general, Lithuanian language use characterizes the informants’ everyday linguistic experience. Some Lithuanians report a balanced bilingual use profile while watching equal amounts of Lithuanian and Russian TV (13.7%) or listening to the radio equally in Lithuanian and Russian (6.2%). Concerning language choice among Russian and Polish informants, Russian and Polish are chosen predominantly for talking with members of the families but both groups report a higher preference for Lithuanian in the case of communication outside the domestic domain. 
The findings are discussed in relation to ethnolinguistic vitality theory as well as language maintaining issues. Current research is part of the project “Ethnolinguistic vitality and identity construction: Estonia in Baltic background” that received funding from the Estonian Science Fund under grant agreement no ETF 7350. 




Anastassia Zabrodskaja, Tallinn University, University of Tartu 
Anna Verschik, Tallinn University 

LINGUISTIC LANDSCAPES OF TALLINN AND VILNIUS: A COMPARATIVE OVERVIEW 

Our paper analyzes a corpus of pictures consisting of mono- and multilingual signs collected in two Baltic capitals – Tallinn (Estonia) and Vilnius (Lithuania) in 2009–2010. We consider a sign to be “any piece of written text within a spatially definable frame [...], including anything from handwritten stickers to huge commercial billboards” (Backhaus 2006: 55). We believe that a comparative approach to sociolinguistic realities in the Baltic countries is highly significant.The two countries have a lot in common. Both countries re-established independence in 1991 and a radical change in language policy took place: Estonian and Lithuanian became the only official languages in the respective countries. Both capitals, Tallinn and Vilnius, have a significant share of non-titular populations (slightly under 50% in both cities). In both countries, Russian-speaking settlers and their descendents had to master the official languages. Still, there are important differences as well: in Estonia, the share of Russian-speakers is about 30%, while in Lithuania it is only 6%, almost equal with Polish speakers. Vilnius pictures were taken in the Old Town, city center, and in the vicinity of railway and bus station, and in the Soviet-built Lazdinai area. In Tallinn, the main areas for data collection were the Old Town, city center, pre-dominantly Russian-speaking Lasnamäe and the harbor.We found that the overall picture of public space in Vilnius is less heterogeneous than that in Tallinn; languages other than Lithuanian are mostly “foreign” rather than “local”. Polish signs appear alongside with English ones in the Old Town area and tourist sites, their audience being Polish tourists rather than local Poles. Yiddish and Belarusian appear for symbolic purposes on memorial plaques. Russian is virtually invisible, except for Russian bookshops. On the contrary, in Tallinn, Russian is sometimes more visible than the official language. This is especially true for Lasnamäe where it is Russian-speaking inhabitants who dominate. English, Finnish and less frequently German appear as tourist languages in the Old Town and city center. In Tallinn harbor the use of Finnish is stimulated by a great number of Finnish tourists. Sporadically, Italian and French appear in the names of Vilnius and Tallinn shops and cafés, communicating “fancy style” and urban sop histication. Tallinn data also demonstrate how multilingual and multicultural identities are expressed and performed via the combined use of Cyrillic and Latin characters. 
Our paper shows actual language practices used in composition of public signage and seeks to answer the following questions: • How does Estonian and Lithuanian official language policy affect the use of local languages in public space? • What does the public display of an official language in particular contexts indicate about its relative value? • What languages/language combinations are represented in Tallinn and in Vilnius and for what functions? • Whether and how does linguistic creativity (creation of hybrid and linguistically ambiguous forms, stylization, plays with different orthographies) manifest itself? 



Gintarė Žalkauskaitė, Vilniaus universitetas 

KALBA IR ŽMOGUS: IDIOLEKTO LEKSIKOS TYRIMAS 

Šiame pranešime pristatomas individualios kalbos tyrimas leksikos aspektu. Daroma prielaida, kad individualus rašančiojo stilius gali būti atpažįstamas iš tekstuose dažnai vartojamų žodžių grupių, nesutampančių su kitų autorių dažnai vartojamų žodžių grupėmis. Tyrimo tikslas buvo palyginti trijų asmenų tekstuose dažniausiai pavartotų žodžių formų sąrašus ir nustatyti, kurių žodžių vartojimo įpročiai labiausiai skiriasi. Buvo tirti trijų asmenų elektroniniai laiškai, iš jų sudaryti tekstynai apima 8696, 9326 ir 8907 žodžius. Laiškuose pavartotų žodžių formų sąrašai sudaryti pasitelkus programą „WordSmith Tools“. Buvo palyginti žodžiai, kurie vieno autoriaus laiškuose buvo pavartoti bent septynis kartus. Išrikiavus žodžius pagal pavartojimo dažnumą matyti, kad maždaug trisdešimt dažniausiai vartojamų žodžių visų trijų asmenų tekstynuose sutampa, o daugiau skirtumų atsiranda maždaug nuo penkiasdešimtųjų pagal pavartojimo dažnumą žodžių. Išskirtos ir aptartos tos žodžių formos, kurios pateko į vieno iš trijų asmenų dažniausiai vartojamų žodžių sąrašą, o kitų asmenų nevartotos arba vartotos daug rečiau. Tarp individualų stilių žyminčių žodžių pateko dalelytės: „na“, „tuo“, „kai“, „gi“, „tipo“; prieveiksmiai: „kada“, „kol“, „tada“, „kažkaip“, „panašiai“; jungtukas „tad“; įvardžiai: „kam“, „jūsų“; įterpiniais einantys veiksmažodžiai „žinoma“, „atrodo“ ir daiktavardis „žodžiu“, veiksmažodis „nežinau“, daiktavardis „dalykai“ ir kt. Darytina išvada, kad tiriant individualų stilių atkreiptinas dėmesys į tuos žodžius, kurie perteikia ne informacijos turinį, o autoriaus toną, nuostatą, mąstymo būdą, tačiau negalima išskirti kurios nors kalbos dalies kaip svarbiausios arba nesvarbios individualaus stiliaus analizei. 



Emilia Wąsikiewicz-Firlej, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland 

DEVELOPING CULTURAL AWARENESS THROUGH LITERARY TEXTS 

This paper aims to present the role of reading literary texts in ESL classes in developing students’ cultural awareness. The central role of literary texts in intercultural education has been suggested by a number of scholars (e.g.: Bredella 1996, 2000; Delanoy 1993; Kramsch 1993, 2003). The theoretical part of the paper focuses on the role of understanding students’ own culture as an fundamental step in developing intercultural competence. Thus, reading literary texts is understood here as text interpretation from both native and foreign linguistic and cultural perspectives, defined by Kramsch (1993) as a “third culture”. The study presented in the second part of the paper attempts to verify the effectiveness of Hanauer’s (2001) method of Focus-on-Cultural Understanding in developing cultural awareness, focusing on gender perception, as one of the essential aspects of culture.The study describes first-year English philology students’ work with selected extracts from the novel Japanland: a year in search of wa by Karin Muller’s, an American writer who reports on her intercultural interactions during her year’s stay in Japan. The research project has been designed to identify students’ perception of gender roles in their own culture in order to compare and contrast it with those dominating in other cultures discussed in the analysed text, namely Japan and the United States. Firstly, students’ attitudes concerning gender roles within their own culture are investigated by a pre-questionnaire. Then, after reading the selected extracts and expert’s interpretation, students’ are surveyed again in order to verify the effectiveness of the tested method in cultural awareness education. 

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